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Distillation calculations mainly calculated rectification column. Whether plate column or packed column, usually in contact and mass transfer in a hierarchical concept to calculate the number of theoretical plates. For two-component design calculations rectification column is usually given design conditions: liquid mixture (feed solution) the amount and concentration of f (to volatile component mole fraction representation), as well as overhead and bottoms The concentration and. Calculate the required number of theoretical plates and the actual number of plate P. We must first determine a reasonable reflux than the previous calculation. Calculation of theoretical plates are:

① graphic method most commonly used is 麦凯勃 - (graphic U.S. WL 麦凯勃 and EW Tilly in 1925 to design a two-component distillation calculation of theoretical plates) Tilly graphic method for two-component Distillation calculations. This method assumes that the vapor and liquid mole molar flow flow through the rectifying section and the stripping section of the vapor-liquid two-phase flow and are held constant. This assumes constant molar flow is commonly referred to assume that it applies to the feed solution of two components is approximately equal molar latent heat of vaporization, mixing thermal effects is small and close to the boiling point of a two-component system. Basic graphical method is mass balance and vapor-liquid equilibrium relationship between components.

Take the first plate to the top of the rectifying section of the column sections (Figure 2 [rectifying section of the material balance] rectifying section mass balance) as an object, as a volatile component mass balance considered: where is the overhead product flow; to leave the liquid phase concentration of the first plate; + +1 board to leave the first vapor phase concentration. This formula says rectifying section operating line equation, in - on the map is a slope / straight. Also take stripping tower segment para plate to the bottom of the object, as a volatile component material balance be regarded as a bottoms product flow. This formula is called the stripping section operating line equation.

The vapor-liquid equilibrium relationship and painted in two operating line equation - Cartesian coordinates. According to the definition of theoretical plates, trays leave any vapor-liquid two-phase concentration, the balance will be in line, according to the composition of the material balance, is located in a two-phase concentrations of the same cross-section of tower with +, will fall on the corresponding column section The operating line. D in the overhead product and bottoms product concentration concentration range between the equilibrium line and operating line for Cascade, every rung on behalf of a number of theoretical plates, the total number of steps is required number of theoretical plates, across the intersection of the two operating lines of Cascade the charging plate. Included in the full-tower efficiency, can be regarded as the actual number of plate P (see stage efficiency); or the like plate according to height, can be calculated from the number of theoretical plates fill height (see differential contact mass transfer equipment).

② algorithm is used as a rough estimate of the Czech Republic, the first under Fenske equation (MR Fenske 1932 United States established full reflux number of theoretical plates calculated equation) is calculated using the total reflux operation reaches a minimum number of theoretical plates required for a given product concentration and the number of d min (including reboiler):

The average relative volatility to be separated whole tower between the two components, often taking the geometric mean of the relative volatility of overhead and bottoms at. Then by min, min and the minimum reflux ratio chosen reflux ratio, from Gilliland empirical correlation (calculation of theoretical plates in 1940 to establish the number of American ER Gilliland correlation):

Obtained the required number of theoretical plates. The relative volatility of nearly constant in the whole tower system, which is close to the ideal solution for separating a mixture of Czech algorithm more reliable, and can be extended to the estimation of multicomponent distillation feed solution. Shortcut method for the optimization of the entire production process often been used in the calculation, in order to save time.

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